1937 AD: In February Irish volunteers take part in the battle of Jarama of the Spanish Civil War.
~ January 20th: Roosevelt's second inaugural. He says that, "we are forming an instrument of unimagined power for the establishment of a morally better world."
~ February 1st: The United State's first free trade port opens on Staten Island in N.Y.
~ February 5th: In reaction to a Supreme Court's decisions against New Deal programs , FDR announces the Federal Court Reorganization Bill, his court-packing proposal. (We may badly need a larger Supreme Court right now.)
~ March 29th: In West Coast Hotel Co v. Parrish the Supreme Court upholds the legality of a state minimum wage law for women, overruling the Court's 1923 finding in Adkins v. Children's Hospital.
~ April 12th: In National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of the National Labor Relations Act, maintaining that the federal government has the right to penalize corporations engaged in interstate commerce that discriminates against unionized employees.
~ May 24th: The Supreme Court upholds the Social Security tax in Steward Machine Co. v. Davis.
~ July 7th: Chinese and Japanese military clash at the Marco Polo Bridge near Beijing, marking the beginning of the Sino-Japanse War. Japan occupies Beijing by July 28th, as the war continues to spread to other parts of China. Massacre known as the "Rape of Nanking" begins in December.
~ August 2nd: Dow, now at 187, begins a long slide.
~ August 26th: Andrew Mellon dies while visiting his daughter Ailsa in Southampton.
~ September 17th: I was born and named Richard Carroll Sheehan.
~ November 10th: Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau Jr. speaks at Hotel Astor, announcing that the Treasury is "determined" to balance budget.
~ December 11th: The Italian government withdraws from the League of Nations.
~ December 28th: The Dow hits a low of 119.
~ On December 29th the Irish Free State became Eire, the Republic of Ireland. De Lavera became the first Prime Minister of Ireland.
1938 AD: February 12th: Agriculture Secretary Henry Wallace celebrates "positive and universal production control" for government in new U.S.A. agricultural law.
~ March 18th: Mexico nationalizes oil industry, expropriating over $400 million in holdings from foreign companies.
~ May 9th: New York Times announces a series of new efforts to revive economy including fiscal pump priming and and a $1 billion in cash for Works Progress Administration.
~ May 27th: Roosevelt delivers a speech assailing congress for voting to cut taxes and accuses lawmakers of abandoning principle of progressive taxation.
~ June 1st: House passes food and drug bill that extends powers to Department of Agriculture and includes regulation of heretofore unregulated cosmetics and therapeutic devices. Lawmakers also at work on law that will create a wage and hour division in the Department of Labor.
~ June 25th: FDR signs the Fair Labor Standers Act (FLSA), instituting minimum wage and maximum work hours in U.S.
~ July 16th: Insull drops dead in Place de la Concorde station of Paris metro.(Samuel Insull was a British-born American "public" utilities magnate, innovator, and investor whose empire collapsed in the 1930s.)
~ September 29th: Germany gains Sudetenland via Munich Pact. (Sudetenland is the historic German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of Czechoslovakia inhabited primarily by persons of Germanic background.)
1939 AD: September 1st: Germany invades Poland. Within days England and France will declare war on Germany.
~ November 30th: The Soviet Union invades Finland, marking the beginning of the Russo-Finish War.
~ February 3rd: Willkie's name publicly bruited as possible presidential candidate.
~ March 2nd: Pollster George Gallup notes that public backs recent Supreme Court ban of sit-down strikes.
~ May 22nd: Germany and Italy sign Pact of Steel, forming a military alliance.
~ July 1st: FDR cleans the New Deal House, signing Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1939, establishing the Federal Works Agency through the consolidation of five existing agencies.
1940 AD: May 10th: Germany invades Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Belgium. Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of England. In the following year, German forces will invade Soviet Union without warning. Germany argues invasion of Netherlands was necessary because it favored "German Enemy."
June 22nd: France surrenders to Germany.
June 28th: Willkie nominated on sixth ballot as Republican candidate for president.
August 20th: Leon Trotsky is assaulted in Mexico and dies the following day.
September 27th: Germany, Japan, Italy enter into the Axis Pact.
November 5th FDR wins third term as U.S. Pres., defeating Republican candidate, Wendell Willkie. The next day the Dow closes at 132.
1963 AD: As President after Kennedy's assassination, Lyndon Johnson 'took over' U.S. Vietnam strategy. Johnson escalated the U.S. involvement in Vietnam leading to criticism of his administration.
1968 AD: A year marked by U.S. domestic unrest - anti-war and anti draft - protest, the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.,and Robert Kennedy, race riots, and the Tet offensive in Vietnam - Johnson announced he would not see the nomination for re-election for the presidency.